The Long Parliament worked to reverse the unpopular policies of Charles I rule, with laws issued to ensure that the king could not implement tax adjustments without parliamentary approval. The king saw this action as an infringement on his rights as a divinely appointed monarch and the wheels were set in motion that would lead to civil war and the execution of Charles I on the 30th of January 1649.
The Roettier brothers from Holland had come to prominence as engravers during the exile of Charles II in the Parliamentarian period, and were held in such favour by Charles that he promised them positions in his Mint at the Restoration. This famously led to the competition in 1663 between the former Parliamentarian engraver, the highly regarded Thomas Simon and the brothers Roettier. However, the fact Simon had worked for Oliver Cromwell meant his position was doomed from the start leading to his famous "Petition Crown" to the King dated 1663, arguably the most magnificent piece of milled engraving work in the British coin series, to no avail. The Roettiers were in favour and Simon was relegated to working on the small silver only.